Sunday, July 19, 2020

18 Simple School Strategies for Students With ADHD

18 Simple School Strategies for Students With ADHD Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (commonly referred to as ADHD) is a condition that develops in childhood and is characterized by problems with attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), ADHD is a problem for approximately nine percent of American children from ages thirteen to eighteen, with boys being four times more at risk than girls. If you are a teacher of a child with  ADHD, this list of 18 simple strategies to help students learn is for you. Strategies for the Classroom Classroom rules  should be clear and concise and reviewed regularly with the student. It is helpful to have the child repeat back rules, expectations or other instructions to make sure they are understood. These rules should be posted prominently in the classroom.Because students with ADHD are susceptible to distractions, seat the student close to the teacher. Make sure he or she is seated away from easy distractions, such as doors, windows, cubby areas or pencil sharpeners.  Give the student frequent and immediate feedback or consequences about behaviors.Catch the student being good and give him immediate praise. Ignore  negative behaviors  that are minimal and not disruptive.Use rewards and incentives before punishment to motivate the student and to help keep school feeling like a positive place. Change up the rewards frequently to help prevent the student from becoming bored.Allow student frequent  physical breaks  to move around (to hand out or collect materials, run errands to t he office or other areas in the school building, erase the board, get a drink of water at the water fountain, etc.).Allow some restlessness at work area. Allow students to stand up at his desk if it helps him stay on task.Tape an index card to the student’s desk with written class rules.  Help him keep track of the schedule by reviewing it with him at various times during the day and prepare him for each transition.Limit distractions, excessive noise, distracting visual stimuli, clutter, etc. (For some kids with ADHD listening to “white noise” or soft background music can help concentration and focus.)Reduce the student’s total workload. Break work down into smaller sections.Give  concise one- or two-step directions. Avoid “overloading” with too much info.Place a hand on the student’s shoulder, hand or arm while talking to him in order to help him stay focused on what is said.Allow the student to hold a small “koosh ball” or silly putty or something tactile for him to manipulate. This slight stimulation often helps keep an ADHD child focused.If the school allows it, some students benefit from chewing gum to release energy and keep concentration.Schedule the most difficult subjects in the morning time when the student (and the whole class) is fresher and less fatigued.Do not use loss of  recess  as a consequence for negative behavior. (ADHD kids benefit from the  physical movement  that occurs during recess and can usually focus better following this exercise).Use timers, taped time signals, or verbal cues to show how much time the student has remaining for an activity.Pair the student with a “study buddy”â€"a kind and mature classroom peer who can help give reminders or refocus the child when he gets off track. A successful strategy to effectively educate students with ADHD includes a triad that includes academic instruction, behavioral interventions, and classroom accommodations. When these strategies are applied more regularly in the classroom, they will benefit not only students with ADHD  but the entire learning environment.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Present Career, Career Interest and the Value of a College...

Present Career, Career Interest and The Value of a College Education Currently I am what some would call a receptionist, but at MD Anderson Cancer Center, my title is Senior Secretary. I am responsible for handling the front desk operations. I receive all the incoming calls for the administrative office. I take messages (paper and e-mail), distribute messages, page staff members when appropriate and assist callers in reaching the appropriate department when necessary. I greet, screen, and announce visitors and guests and direct them to the appropriate areas. I also provide administrative support to the department. I am responsible for preparing outgoing mail and taking it to Mail Services as well as picking up and distributing†¦show more content†¦Trying to obtain a college degree, requires a lot of planning, saving and sacrificing. It is all worth the sacrifice. A college education better prepares an individual for the competitive job market. It helps to improve t heir problem solving skills, decision-making and analytical skills. With a college degree, you can develop the skills and knowledge needed to secure a higher position with a company, earn more money and enjoy a better quality of life. Once I obtain my college degree, Bachelors in Science/Business Administration, my plans are to remain with MD Anderson Cancer Center. As I stated earlier, I have been researching positions within the institution but I have not decided what I really wanted to do. I have a desire to be in charge, the boss. Since I am currently working in an administrative office, I have taken a strong interest in my bosss position. Her title is Department Administrator. I would be serving as the administrator and business officer for an academic department whose responsibilities include, preparing, justifying, and administering budgets for the department and its related programmatic areas. The position ensures that human resources are appropriately selected, or iented, utilized, and evaluated. Evaluates direct reports annually. Coordinates and assists in the preparation of grant proposals and contractual agreements. Coordinates physical resource utilization. In association with the Chair andShow MoreRelated Present Career, Carrer Interest, and the Value of a College Education2762 Words   |  12 PagesRolesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Description Initiatornbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Suggests new goals or ideas. Information Seeker/Givernbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Clarifies key issues. Opinion seeker/givernbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Clarifies pertinent values. Elaboratornbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Promotes greater understanding through examples or exploration of implications. Coordinatornbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Pulls together ideas and suggestions. Orienternbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Keeps groupRead MorePurpose of Higher Education Essay1029 Words   |  5 Pagespast did not stress value of receiving a higher education because it was not as indispensable as it is today. Now, people perceive others not only by their appearances, but by their accomplishments. Employers always hire people with the most education and experience. The majority of students are concerned about getting a higher education throughout the years. Nevertheless, some people question the purposes of getting educated, and consider it meaningless. The concept of education has a significantRead MoreThe Stages of Career Development Essay1225 Words   |  5 PagesThe Stages of Career Development The Cambridge Online dictionary defines career development as the process of learning and improving your skills so that you can perform your job better and progress to better jobs (Cambridge, 2011). However, my articles on career development have a slightly different view. My article states that career development happens in stages, and it has influencing factors (Gohdes, 1997-2000). Therefore, I will discuss these elements along with its main points. After thatRead MoreCareer Theory. Narrative. Growing Up I Would Be Constantly1742 Words   |  7 PagesCareer Theory Narrative Growing up I would be constantly moving between different cities, states, and countries, as my family would participate in seasonal migration. The couple of months that I would stay at any one particular place, I never allowed myself to make long term friends or commitments as everything seem to be temporary. When I was in ending middle school entering high school, I found myself familiarizing myself with Los Angeles as a permanent home base as my parents found assembly lineRead MoreEssay on The New Liberal Arts1637 Words   |  7 PagesAnh Pham English 101 â€Å"The New Liberal Arts† is an article written by Sanford J. Ungar, who is a president of Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland. In the beginning of his article, Ungar wrote, â€Å"Hard economic times inevitably bring scrutiny of all accepted ideals and institutions, and this time around the liberal arts education has been especially hard hit.† In other words, Ungar means that recent economic recessions have made a huge impact on what people think of going for a liberal arts degreeRead MoreThe Theory Of Career Counseling1072 Words   |  5 PagesHolland’s theory is the most widely used, respected, and researched theory of career counseling (pg. 148). With research providing a foundation of effectiveness and usefulness, Holland’s theory provides a positive framework for assisting clients achieve career and occupational satisfaction. Holland notes various personality types providing one with insight into their interest, traits, and factors that ultim ately lead to career happiness. The six personality types previously identified as realisticRead MoreCareer Goals Hurt Academic Performance1515 Words   |  7 PagesUnclear Career Goals Hurt Academic Performance One major and frightening problem students face is not developing defined career goals. Students Who enter college right after graduating high school tend to have no idea of what exact career path that they want to pursue. A majority of these students struggle to figure out their career goals and end up taking a variety of different courses, most of which are unnecessary. Some of the classes they enroll in may not have any relevance to theRead MoreBenefits Of Subsidizing Stem Classes1208 Words   |  5 PagesCollege is where you will find many opportunities which is why people should attend college. Many high paying jobs are out there waiting for someone with the degree they desire to come forth. Not only will college make you a better person, but will also take you on an unforgettable journey. Some people may not understand the logic between right, and wrong and what is better than to learn about philosophical ideas, ‘if the new republic was to flourish and endure, it required, above all, an education’Read MoreThe Phases Of American Education1528 Words   |  7 PagesThe Phases of American Education Can you imagine a world without education? If education did not exist there would be no iPhones, computers, laptops, or cars. Education has had its ups and downs. The learning system in the past was very basicÍ ¾ students got lessons directly from the teacher and more information from the book. Back then, parents taught their children how to read and write from the bible and hornbooks. People usually learned how to read from picture books. Boys went to school whileRead MoreTechniques For Enhancing Self Efficacy1485 Words   |  6 Pagesperceptions of aptitude may increasingly influence students’ sense of which career options are attractive and viable (Brown, 2002). Self-efficacy beliefs and goal attainment are central to the development of academic-career interests and to the collection of occupational opportunities that students view as possible careers for themselves. School counselors can optimize the development of students’ academic and career interest and competencies through a number of cognitive implications using SCCT.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The American Dream By James Truslow Adams - 1130 Words

From the time our Founding Fathers introduced the idea of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, many individuals are now craving to achieve their idea of the American Dream. The American Dream has changed dramatically over the few centuries. During the Founding Fathers’ time, many believed the American Dream meant freedom, equality, and mutual respect. Time has changed this ideology of the American Dream, which is now seen as owning a million dollar mansion with multiple luxury cars. This isn’t the case for many immigrants who come to the Americas to have a better life for themselves and their family. To many of them, the American Dream is as simple as living in a house and being able to provide their children with an education and†¦show more content†¦After the depression in 1890’s, immigration jumped from as low as 3.5 million during that time to the highest 9 million. As a result of this increase of population, jobs for immigrants were difficul t to find, yet they replaced many African-Americans and Native Americans which created tension. Many immigrants during this time were desperate to fulfill the American Dream so they willingly took jobs that paid less than others. In 1912, it was stated that men had earned less than ten dollars a week. The American Dream to many immigrants, as stated above, was to have a job in order to provide a meal enough for their family. In this case, it can be seen that many immigrants during the 1900’s had difficulties trying to maintain their American Dream even if the cost was highly. Those who accepted the jobs would receive a low paying wage but to them this was the American Dream, ten dollars a week. As for many immigrants,coming to the Americas would help fulfill their idea of the American Dream. Many nowadays see the dream of owning the most expensive house on the block or being able to drive around in a BMW as the American Dream, but do we ever consider or think about what the American Dream is for those who didn’t have the privilege to live in a free country? A fellow immigrant from Boston shared his story of how his life was, being an immigrant and coming to the Americas in order to achieve his American Dream. â€Å"In 1965 weShow MoreRelatedThe American Dream By James Truslow Adams1243 Words   |  5 Pagesspike in questionable practices further withheld the American Dream from those wishing to achieve it the way it was intended, through hard work and perseverance. In 1931, James Truslow Adams defined the American Dream, â€Å"life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement†, regardless of one s class or circumstances of birth. More and more people were being denied the American Dream every, yet they still strived to make something ofRead MoreJames Truslow Adams : The American Dream1800 Words   |  8 PagesThe American Dream The American Dream was something everyone wanted to achieve in the 1930’s; however, many people did not get there because they either gave up, or did not find what they were looking for. Many people were just looking to get away and find their own happiness so they made their own American Dream. As historian James Adams said ... a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest statureRead MoreThe American Dream By James Truslow Adams Essay1886 Words   |  8 PagesJames Truslow Adams in 1931 coined the term â€Å"The American Dream† in his book The Epic of America (Michels, n.d., para. 1). He wrote of an America that offered freedom of religion, and speech, as well as political and social opportunities that few other countries offered. However, according to Eva Michels, â€Å"The American Dream† means something different for each individual, it refers to the way of li fe that Americans strive for and have equal rights to achieve regardless of social class or nationalityRead MoreThe American Dream By James Truslow Adams1707 Words   |  7 PagesThe American Dream, coined by James Truslow Adams in 1931, had been a popular term that had; given motivation to the dissatisfied, reduced the influence of race and one’s social position on achieving their goals, advertised America as a land that offered an abundant amount of possibilities that no other country could match, and unified the country under the same desire of wealth and prosperity, even in times of great despair. Adams had constructed the idea, â€Å"...that American dream of a better, richerRead MoreThe American Dream By James Truslow Adams803 Words   |  4 PagesThe term â€Å" The American Dream† can be coined to historian James Truslow Adams in the early 1930’s. Adams believed that the true commitment for the American society was based of material success that was o btained by individual competition of the citizens. Furthermore, stating that the American citizens had been conditioned to desire success, with an honest belief that it was possible for one to achieve it. This was possible because the very principles that American society represented, helped eachRead MoreThe American Dream By James Truslow Adams1500 Words   |  6 PagesThe American Dream is the sole reason that millions of people decided to come to this country, whether it be generations ago, or last week. But even so, this shared dream faces problems. To solve the problem, the American Dream has to be defined. James Truslow Adams, author of the 1931 book The Epic of America, was the first person to mention and therefore define the American Dream. He established it as: â€Å"[T]hat dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, withRead MoreJames Truslow Adams And The American Dream1392 Words   |  6 Pages While the idea of the American Dream became more popular during the 17th to 20th centuries, the achievability remained elusive due to a static and hierarchical social order that prevailed throughout this time. Thus, the tireless claims of the New Left for a reformed society are supported by the unchanging accessibility of the American Dream. In his book The Epic of America (1931), James Truslow Adams defined the American Dream as â€Å"that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer andRead MoreJames Truslow Adams And The American Dream1371 Words   |  6 Pagesand dreams. Although this is a simple concept, how one must work to achieve these goals is much more complicated. Everyone is born into a different situation and the opportunities they are exposed to differ depending on the person. The original idea of the â€Å"American Dream† supported the idea that all American citizens are able to obtain a better life than they are currently living; however, that idea is continuously changing and many interpret their own dream in different ways. James Truslow AdamsRead MoreThe American Dream By James Truslow Adams1406 Words   |  6 PagesThis so called, â€Å"American dream.† Is it still around, waiting to be achieved by those who work hard enough? Is it effectively dead, killed off by the Great Recession and the economic struggling that many Americans have come to face in this day and age? There are alarming instances and facts, including trillions of dollars lost in the stock market (Paradise, 2009). These losses combined with the unquestionably high unemployment in the past few years, have contributed to seemingly dismal prospectsRead MoreThe American Dream By James Truslow Adams1577 Words   |  7 PagesThe American Dream Lives On Since 1776, the â€Å"American Dream† has continued to evolve. Originally, our forefathers intended the American Dream to be a country where individuals were free from the tyranny of royalty and nobility, working as a part of a whole, making everyone comfortable and happy - all men created equal with equal opportunity. Over the years, this original intent has continued to change. In 1931, James Truslow Adams stated that the American Dream means that, â€Å"life should be better

Built without prior design Free Essays

It is our passion that enables us to transcend over boundaries and create new approaches and enhance our insights towards growth. It is what captivates and inspires us to do better in the things we do and showcase our individual talent and worth. Given the unique opportunity to create models without the proper framework is truly a good idea to ponder on and look back. We will write a custom essay sample on Built without prior design or any similar topic only for you Order Now This experience came into me as I was working on one project. It is really a challenge for architects to distinguish the unique and appropriate design of one structure or model without the proper blueprints that can distinguish its difference and at the same time showcase its creativity to the public. Despite these setbacks, I am proud that I was able to create one with a clear mind and a purpose that needs to be accomplished. I feel that is has been my exposure in the realities of construction and architecture that I was able to accomplish such feat. My five years of experience in Saudi Arabia enlightened and increased my competency in handling the complex processes involved in both designing and implementing on what needs to be done. It catered to the improvement of skills and helped me become adept in my chosen field. Similarly, the positions I held were also vital in making me aware of the different challenges present in the practice. I consider myself to be privileged because the company I am working with exposed me into different positions that greatly widened my horizons when it comes to architecture. These responsibilities include: projects management, project manager, quality control, sales, and design and development. With these, I was able to build and create my own unique foundation when it comes to design and practice. This realizations and exposure helped me develop my own style and benchmark in design. I became passionate in the things that I do as I sought not only to satisfy my patrons, but at the same time exercise my own signature and architectural finishing. This has given me the confidence that I can go over boundaries and address what needs to be made. It catered to a fulfillment unique only for my part as it help me grow as a professional. Looking back, a business man gave me the opportunity to design and build his private ball hall. Being taught as a rule that blueprints do matter in the course of the building process, I was a bit shocked to hear that there were no plans whatsoever concerning this project. However, this did not hinder me from doing my job and addressing what needs to be done and making my patron satisfied. Operating on this logic, I initiated this difficult procedure by looking back into my former designs and try to integrate them into designing this structure out from scratch and without a blueprint. With this in mind, I began to plan on what are the appropriate steps and strategies that can be implemented in the process and what style shall I incorporate in this specific output. With this, I began a step-by-step process of trying to integrate vital and important schemes to create my structure. As an architect, I must understand that each of these elements is vital for the building process to be consecutive and precise. Seeing this, it leaves no room for error in my part as I try to unravel the elements piece by piece. Moreover, I had to be also precise when it comes to the detail I am trying to showcase. Since the project consists of a ball hall, I had to brainstorm on proper pieces that can be included within and outside the area. I needed to ask the questions are these suitable and what color schemes can I use that will blend the structure to both the environment and justify it to the preference of my patron. Likewise, measurement is also an important component that I consider in building this structure. Without the proper data concerning this facet, the project is doomed to fail. Due to this, I had to be particular with the scale and construction process because it has to adhere to the both the spatial and visual order of architecture. It was a good thing that I was able to create a good output of what I did. Applying this I went to the site everyday and tried to accomplish what were included in my checklist of things to do. It revolved around the areas of design, building, and implementation. All the time, I see to it that every aspect of what I instructed was done accurately and appropriately by the person in charge. In addition, I sometimes took part in labor to ensure that all things are in place and go according to my plan. In the end, the project was successful as it showcased both relevance and expertise in work and the struggle to make things look as if it were designed using a blueprint. All the hard work and commitment paid its price as the new structure turned out to be good and at the same time satisfied the owner. Though building without prior design is really difficult in nature, with the proper perspective and discipline, one can achieve and adminis How to cite Built without prior design, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Socrates Defence Essays - Socratic Dialogues, Dialogues Of Plato

Defending Justice My fellow gentlemen of the jury, I am not speaking here today only for the defense of Socrates from being wrongly accused of crimes, but am here to defend the city of Athens from making a grave injustice and staining the reputation of our legal system in this great city. I should begin by making sure every jury member here today fully understands what Socrates is being charged with. Without a knowledgeable jury, then there will not be a knowledgeable sentencing, and when a sentencing is not knowledgeable, then it is unjust. First off, Socrates has been charged with teaching false things and not believing in the Gods. This is such an extremely asinine statement that it nearly makes me sick. Socrates does not ever question the Gods existences, but rather simply asks questions on how the world works around him, the world that the Gods have created. So he does never teach any falsehoods, just asks questions. Socrates believes and follows the Gods just as much as any other person that sits or stands here today. An example of his beliefs would be when the question of who was the wisest man arose. The all-knowing Oracle that is directly inspired by the Gods was asked ?is there anyone wiser than Socrates The Oracle responded that no one was wiser than Socrates, and what the Oracle says is truth, as everyone here surely knows. Socrates very well knows and believes in the Oracle, and accepted the fact that that the Oracle is correct, even though Socrates highly believes that he does not know much if anything. Thr oughout Socrates quest to find if anyone was wiser than he, Socrates grew to understand what he believes the Oracle means by saying Socrates is the wisest; not necessarily meaning he knows more than any other person, but he understands how the world works better than any other individual and that is what true wisdom is. Like I stated before, since the Oracle is directly inspired by the Gods, and Socrates believes that the Oracle tells the truth, how Socrates can must in the Gods, therefore this completely refutes the charge that has been laid upon him in regards to Socrates not following the Gods. As for the second charge, Socrates has been charged for corrupting the youth of Athens. So I assume that this charge was brought up because of those that follow or overhear Socrates are beginning to act like him when in the marketplace or the gym and are engaged in an argument with either their peers or elders. This is a ridiculous statement to make, especially after listening to Socrates and Meletus argue about what this charge is about. To say that thieves and those who do not follow suit to our city?s Gods does not corrupt Athens? youth, but a man that asks questions about how the world works, and tries to stimulate people?s minds is corrupting the youth of Athens, and yet the only one who does? There is no way. Whoever truly believes that stimulating people?s minds is bad for our youth, or anyone for that matter, are corrupt, and if they are exposing their ideals to the youth then wouldn?t they be the corruptors of youth? So do not be so quick to judge who corrupts whom because maybe some of you should be pointing at yourselves. This leads me into my next point. It may not be completely official, but unofficially Socrates is thirdly being charged for making the worse argument seem the better when he discussed with others trained in the sophist style of arguing. Now most all of you in here are sophists, and many here have discussed with Socrates. How is it that Socrates can so consistently make wrong arguments seem true? Are you too blind to see you were wrong, so ignorant as to not accept new methods to winning an argument? History tells us all that the way people think changes over time. New realizations are made every year and how the world works changes for good. For example, people use to be nomads; going from place to place searching for new shelter and food every week. Now we collectively have structure; we

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Coronary Heart disease Essays - RTT, Aging-associated Diseases

Coronary Heart disease Essays - RTT, Aging-associated Diseases Coronary Heart disease Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease is one of the vast killer diseases in many countries, (up to 500,000 Americans die every year from coronary heart disease). It is a chronic illness involving the narrowing of the arteries and vessels that supply the heart with oxygen and glucose. As a result of insufficient amounts of oxygen reaching the heart, associated health risks such as chest pains known as Angina and heart attack can be produced. One of the major causes of coronary heart disease is the hardening of medium or large arteries (Arteriosclerosis) which is mainly caused by an unhealthy diet. However, this is not the only cause of Arteriosclerosis. Coronary disease refers to the failure of coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to cardiac muscle and surrounding tissue. It is the most common form of disease affecting the heart and an important cause of premature death in North and South America. There are many other factors that could lead to coronary heart disease, such as smoking, stress, drinking and not exercising enough as well as the main underlying cause which is high blood cholesterol levels. Coronary heart disease can also be inherited. Many of these factors can be modified, including, smoking, drinking and exercise. Yet, some of the causes of coronary heart disease are beyond the control of humans. For instance, no one can control their age or the genes that they inherit. However, if a person tries to exercise more or stop smoking and drinking then they will have a lower chance of getting coronary heart disease. EXERCISE Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and cardiovascular system. Physical exercise is a potent primary and secondary preventer of cardiovascular illness, particularly that due to the coronary heart disease. It is thought that physical inactivity roughly doubles the risk of coronary heart disease and is a major risk factor for heart disease. Frequent and regular physical exercise helps prevent the ?disease of affluence? such as heart disease. SMOKING Furthermore, the effects of smoking are that it makes the blood vessels of the heart become sticky. It increases the chance of fat molecules to deposit on the inner lining of the arteries which can cause the lumen to narrow, thus restricting the blood flow through them. Chemicals in smoke also make the walls of the blood vessels become sticky. Obesity can prevail due to the lack of physical exercise for the reason that exercise helps to burn the fat in our bodies. Exercise also keeps the heart muscles active and strong, without exercise the muscles eventually become weak and can only support a slow blood flow. This again results in little oxygen reaching the heart in a given time. Moreover, high blood pressure can be due to a result of insensible drinking and too much salt it the diet. Nicotine also causes high blood pressure, by reducing the capability of the arteries to dilate. In addition to causing high blood pressure nicotine is also responsible for making the red blood sticky. A blockage in the arteries can occur not only as a consequent of fat deposit, but also from sticky red blood cells. DIET Lifestyle changes have been shown to be effective in reducing (and in the cases of diet, reversing) coronary disease. Healthy diet has been shown to be hugely effective as a treatment of coronary heart disease, and generalized atherosclerosis. However, the idea of what composes a ?healthy diet? is highly controversial. In some studies the progression of heart disease has been shown to halt, and in some cases, the disease process may be revered. Dieting and physical exercise are the mainstays of treatment for heart disease. Moreover, it is important to improve diet quality by reducing the consumption of energy ?dense foods such as those high in fat and cholesterol. Cholesterol lowering medications, such as stains, are useful to decrease the amount of ?bad? cholesterol. Regardless of all the above factors which cause coronary heart disease, the foremost cause is having an unbalanced diet, especially one that is reliant on the intake of excess saturated fats and refined carbohydrates. Excessive eating can lead to

Monday, March 2, 2020

Pharaoh Hatshepsuts Deir el-Bahri Temple in Egypt

Pharaoh Hatshepsuts Deir el-Bahri Temple in Egypt The Deir el-Bahri Temple Complex (also spelled Deir el-Bahari) includes one of the most beautiful temples in Egypt, perhaps in the world, built by the architects of the New Kingdom Pharaoh Hatshepsut in the 15th century BC. The three colonnaded terraces of this lovely structure were built within a steep half-circle of cliffs on the west bank of the Nile River, guarding the entrance to the great Valley of the Kings. It is unlike any other temple in Egyptexcept for its inspiration, a temple built some 500 years earlier. Hatshepsut and Her Reign The pharaoh Hatshepsut (or Hatshepsowe) ruled for 21 years [about 1473-1458 BC] during the early part of the New Kingdom, before the vastly successful imperialism of her nephew/stepson and successor Thutmose (or Thutmosis) III. Although not quite as much of an imperialist as the rest of her 18h Dynasty relatives, Hatshepsut spent her reign building up the wealth of Egypt to the greater glory of the god Amun. One of the buildings she commissioned from her beloved architect (and probable consort) Senenmut or Senenu, was the lovely Djeser-Djeseru temple, rival only to the Parthenon for architectural elegance and harmony. The Sublime of the Sublimes Djeser-Djeseru means Sublime of the Sublimes or Holy of the Holies in the ancient Egyptian language, and it is the best-preserved part of the Deir el-Bahri, Arabic for Monastery of the North complex. The first temple built at Deir el-Bahri was a mortuary temple for Neb-Hepet-Re Montuhotep, built during the 11th dynasty, but few remains of this structure are left. Hatshepsuts temple architecture included some aspects of Mentuhoteps temple but on a grander scale. The walls of Djeser-Djeseru are illustrated with Hatshepsuts autobiography, including stories of her fabled trip to the land of Punt, considered by some scholars likely to have been in the modern countries of Eritrea or Somalia. The murals depicting the trip include a drawing of a grotesquely overweight Queen of Punt. Also discovered at Djeser-Djeseru were the intact roots of frankincense trees, which once decorated the front faà §ade of the temple. These trees were collected by Hatshepsut in her travels to Punt; according to the histories, she brought back five shiploads of luxury items, including exotic plants and animals. After Hatshepsut Hatshepsuts beautiful temple was damaged after her reign ended when her successor Thutmose III had her name and images chiseled off the walls. Thutmose III built his own temple to the west of Djeser-Djeseru. Additional damage was done to the temple at the orders of the later 18th dynasty heretic Akhenaten, whose faith tolerated only images of the Sun god Aten. The Deir el-Bahri Mummy Cache Deir el-Bahri is also the site of a mummy cache, a collection of pharaohs preserved bodies, retrieved from their tombs during the 21st dynasty of the New Kingdom. Looting of pharaonic tombs had become rampant, and in response, the priests Pinudjem I [1070-1037 BC] and Pinudjem II [990-969 BC] opened the ancient tombs, identified the mummies as best they could, rewrapped them and placed them in one of (at least) two caches: Queen Inhapis tomb in Deir el-Bahri (room 320) and the Tomb of Amenhotep II (KV35). The Deir el-Bahri cache included mummies of the 18th and 19th dynasty leaders Amenhotep I; Tuthmose I, II, and III; Ramses I and II, and the patriarch Seti I. The KV35 cache included Tuthmose IV, Ramses IV, V, and VI, Amenophis III and Merneptah. In both caches there were unidentified mummies, some of which were set in unmarked coffins or stacked in corridors; and some of the rulers, such as Tutankhamun, were not found by the priests. The mummy cache in Deir el-Bahri was rediscovered in 1875 and excavated over the next few years by French archaeologist Gaston Maspero, director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service. The mummies were removed to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, where Maspero unwrapped them. The KV35 cache was discovered by Victor Loret in 1898; these mummies were also moved to Cairo and unwrapped. Anatomical Studies In the early 20th century, Australian anatomist Grafton Elliot Smith examined and reported on the mummies, publishing photos and great anatomical detail in his 1912 Catalogue of the Royal Mummies. Smith was fascinated by the changes in embalming techniques over time, and he studied in detail the strong family resemblances among the pharaohs, particularly for the kings and queens in the 18th dynasty: long heads, narrow delicate faces, and projecting upper teeth. But he also noticed that some of the mummies appearances did not match the historical information known about them or the court paintings associated with them. For example, the mummy said to belong to the heretic pharaoh Akhenaten was clearly too young, and the face didnt match his distinctive sculptures. Could the 21st dynasty priests have been wrong? Identifying Mummies Since Smiths day, several studies have attempted to reconcile the identities of the mummies, but without much success. Could DNA resolve the problem? Perhaps, but the preservation of ancient DNA (aDNA) is affected not only by the age of the mummy but by the extreme methods of mummification used by the Egyptians. Interestingly, natron, properly applied, appears to preserve DNA: but differences in preservation techniques and situations (such as whether a tomb was flooded or burned) have a deleterious effect. Secondly, the fact that New Kingdom royalty intermarried may cause a problem. In particular, the pharaohs of the 18th dynasty were very closely related to one another, a result of generations of half-sisters and brothers intermarrying. It is quite possible that DNA family records may never be precise enough to identify a specific mummy. More recent studies have focused on the recurrence of various diseases, using CT scanning to identify orthopedic irregularities (Fritsch et al.) and heart disease (Thompson et al.). Archaeology at Deir el-Bahri Archaeological investigations of the Deir el-Bahri complex were begun in 1881, after objects belonging to the missing pharaohs began to turn up in the antiquities market. Gaston Maspero [1846-1916], director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service at the time, went to Luxor in 1881 and began to apply pressure to the Abdou El-Rasoul family, residents of Gurnah who had for generations been tomb robbers. The first excavations were those of Auguste Mariette in the mid-19th century. Excavations at the temple by the Egyptian Exploration Fund  (EFF) began in the 1890s led by French archaeologist Edouard Naville [1844-1926]; Howard Carter, famous for his work at Tutankhamuns tomb, also worked at Djeser-Djeseru for the EFF in the late 1890s. In 1911, Naville turned over his concession on Deir el-Bahri (which allowed him sole excavators rights), to Herbert Winlock who began what would be 25 years of excavation and restoration. Today, the restored beauty and elegance of Hatshepsuts temple is open to visitors from around the planet. Sources Brand P. 2010. Usurpation of Monuments. In: Wendrich W, editor. UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. 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